Adrenal Insufficiency


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What are the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency?

The syndrome of congenital adrenocortical unresponsiveness to ACTH. Report of six cases. Pediatr Res. Triple A syndrome with ophthalmic manifestations in two siblings. Indian J Ophthalmol. Adrenomyeloneuropathy in patients with 'Addison's disease': genetic case analysis. J R Soc Med. Nonclassic congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia: a new disorder of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein with very late presentation and normal male genitalia.

Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's Disease) | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Methadone induced hypoadrenalism. Sibling cases of Addison's disease caused by DAX-1 gene mutations. Intern Med. Rifampicin and adrenal crisis. Rifampicin-induced adrenal crisis in addisonian patients receiving corticosteroid replacement therapy.


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Function of the adrenal cortex: protocol for the rapid ACTH test. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; Vol Adrenocorticotropin stimulation test: effects of basal cortisol level, time of day, and suggested new sensitive low dose test. Rapid ACTH test with plasma aldosterone levels. Improved diagnostic discrimination.

Lindholm J, Kehlet H. Re-evaluation of the clinical value of the 30 min ACTH test in assessing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical function. Rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone test in practice. Retrospective review. Am J Med. High concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone in untreated glucocorticoid deficiency: indication of primary hypothyroidism?. Reversible hypothyroidism in Addison's disease.

Tuberculous Addison's disease: morphological and quantitative evaluation with multidetector-row CT. Lovas K, Husebye ES. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion in Addison's disease. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy and pharmacogenetics in Addison's disease: effects on bone. Reduction in daily hydrocortisone dose improves bone health in primary adrenal insufficiency. Chandy DD, Bhatia E.

Adrenal Insufficiency

Bethune JE. The diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency. In: De Groot LJ, ed. Vol 2: The Adrenal cortex: a scope monograph. Kalamazoo, Mich: Upjohn Co; Burke CW. Adrenocortical insufficiency. Clin Endocrinol Metab. Adrenal insufficiency. Effects of cortisol on carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism: studies of acute cortisol withdrawal in adrenocortical failure. Estimated risk for developing autoimmune Addison's disease in patients with adrenal cortex autoantibodies.

Bilateral adrenal lymphoma with Addison's disease : a surgical pitfall. Acta Chir Belg. The polyglandular failure syndrome: disease inheritance, HLA type, and immune function. Symington T, ed. Functional Pathology of the Adrenal Gland. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingstone; Diseases of the adrenal cortex. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.


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Measurements of serum free cortisol in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. Kaplan NM. The adrenal glands. Textbook of Endocrine Physiology. Association of Addison's disease with autoimmune disorders--a long-term observation of patients. Even after diagnosis and treatment, the risk of death is more than 2-fold higher in patients with Addison disease. Cardiovascular, malignant, and infectious diseases are responsible for the higher mortality rate.

White and Arlt examined the prevalence of and risk factors for adrenal crisis in patients with Addison disease, utilizing a survey of Addison patients in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. A study by Chantzichristos et al indicated that in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes, those who also have Addison disease have a higher mortality rate than do those with diabetes alone.

Over a median follow-up period of 5. The increase in the estimated relative overall mortality risk was 3. Although cardiovascular deaths accounted for the highest mortality rate in both groups, the death rate from diabetes complications, infectious diseases, and unknown causes was greater in the patients with Addison disease than in those with diabetes alone.

The most common age at presentation in adults is years, but the disease could present earlier in patients with any of the polyglandular autoimmune syndromes , congenital adrenal hyperplasia CAH , or if onset is due to a disorder of long-chain fatty acid metabolism. Addison T. London, UK: Samuel Highley; J Clin Endocrinol Metab.

Debono M, Ross RJ.

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Doses and steroids to be used in primary and central hypoadrenalism. Ann Endocrinol Paris. Reisch N, Arlt W. Fine tuning for quality of life: 21st century approach to treatment of Addison's disease. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. Endocr Pract. Kyriazopoulou V. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease. Expert Opin Pharmacother. Premature mortality in patients with Addison's disease: a population-based study.

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Subsequent autoimmune or related disease in asthma patients: clustering of diseases or medical care?. Ann Epidemiol. White K, Arlt W. Adrenal crisis in treated Addison's disease: a predictable but under-managed event. Eur J Endocrinol. Mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and Addison's disease: a nationwide, matched, observational cohort study.

Patients presenting with Addison's disease need not be pigmented. Postgrad Med J. McBrien DJ. Steatorrhea in Addison's disease. Vol I Hyperkalemic paralysis in Addison's disease.

Addison Disease

Mayo Clin Proc. Screening for Addison's disease in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and recurrent hypoglycaemia. Addison's disease due to adrenal tuberculosis: contrast-enhanced CT features and clinical duration correlation. Eur J Radiol.

ifuduxevapek.tk Husebye E, Lovas K. Pathogenesis of primary adrenal insufficiency. The substrate-binding domain of hydroxylase, the main autoantigen in autoimmune Addison's disease, is an immunodominant T cell epitope.


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  • Fc-gamma receptor polymorphisms are not associated with autoimmune Addison's disease. Scand J Immunol. The tryptophan allele of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 gene predisposes to autoimmune Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol Oxf.

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