Hoffmeister, Petrarca, — Hoffmeister, Petrarkistische Lyrik, 31ff. Chapter Two Petrarchan Poetry and the Madrigal in Seventeenth-Century Germany Import and Publication The catalogues of the half-yearly book fairs at Frankfurt and Leipzig show that from the late sixteenth century to around a great deal of foreign poetry and music was imported into Germany. From the third decade of the seventeenth century the import of madrigals gradually decreased and more and more foreign madrigal collections were published by German printers. The number of madrigals by German artists available at the fairs also increased.
A similar development may be observed in the ratio of foreign to German works in the sale of poetry. Around the main trade was in works by Ovid, Virgil, and Heinsius, whereas in the period — many translations of this poetry and original works by German poets were sold. In particular the secular love poetry of Martin Opitz, Paul Fleming, and Johann Rist appear in almost every catalogue in this period. Thus the popularity of the musical madrigal was concurrent with that of its literary counterpart, the love poem.
In the last decade of the sixteenth century an average of four such collections was published annually in Nuremberg. His collections were sold and reprinted in large numbers.
Outside Nuremberg also the madrigal was the most frequently published secular musical genre in this period. Italian madrigalian manner. Up to around German printers principally published imported works by Ovid, Virgil, and Heinsius; after that date they mainly published German poetry. In the second half of the seventeenth century the number Petrarchan Poetry and the Madrigal in Germany 27 of translations declined, while the number of poetry collections of German origin grew.
This shift indicates the increasing importance of German as a poetic language.
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After a period of importing and printing mainly foreign works, there was a shift around the middle of the seventeenth century to the production and publication of German poetic and musical works. In both the importation of foreign works and the production of Germany poetry and music the madrigal and love poem proved the most popular secular genres. These preferences reflect the fashion elsewhere in Western Europe. The fact that the great heyday of the madrigal came after the invention of the art of printing is a possible reason for the enormous popularity of this genre in printed collections.
Foreign Studies of German Poets and Composers In the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a number of German poets and composers studied in Italy, France, and the Netherlands.
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Most of them set out from cities and regions of Germany where foreign and German poetry and music was imported and printed. He wrote his own texts, which took the form of love songs or pastoral songs.
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Between and he studied the madrigal style under the direction of Giovanni Gabrieli. The fruit of these studies was a madrigal collection published in Venice in During their stay in Venice each published a collection of madrigals set to petrarchan love poems written by Italian poets or by themselves.
From until the late seventeenth century the Dresden court chapel, for example, always included Italian musicians as well as Germans. In the chapel was even divided into a German and an Italian group: the Italians appeared on Sundays and feast days, while the Germans played on weekdays and if the Italians were not available. Martin Opitz studied from to in Leiden, where he met Daniel Heinsius. Heinsius was, along with Petrarch, Ronsard, and Scaliger, an important model for Opitz. Of the second generation of Silesian poets, Christian Hofmann von Hofmannswaldau studied in Leiden between and , then traveled through the Netherlands, England, and France to Italy, where he was impressed and influenced by the love poetry of Marino.
His fellow student and friend Andreas Gryphius visited the same countries.
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Circulation of Petrarchan Poetry and the Madrigal in Germany During the seventeenth century petrarchan poetry and the madrigal blossomed in the cultural and publishing centers of the university cities Leipzig and Wittenberg, the Saxon court at Dresden, and the cities of Nuremberg and Hamburg. Silesia, Leipzig, and Wittenberg The first and extremely important representative of literary petrarchism in Germany was the Silesian Martin Opitz, whose poetry and poetics had a decisive influence on the development of German-language poetry.
Opitz Petrarchan Poetry and the Madrigal in Germany 29 explicitly strove to enhance the poetic potential of the German language and to raise German poetry to the level of Italian, Dutch, and French poetry. In his Buch von der deutschen Poeterey he formulated precise instructions for the production of German poetic genres. He also translated poetry by Petrarch, Heinsius, and Ronsard into German and wrote poems of his own on this stylistic foundation.
Like Opitz, his pupils and followers mastered modern poetic conventions through practical exercises. The numerous German translations and imitations of Italian, Dutch, and French petrarchists from the first half of the seventeenth century are the fruits of such undertakings; thus the Deutsche Epigrammata by Johann Franck, who later became famous as a sacred poet, was a well-known secular song collection. Many of the Silesian poets studied in Leipzig and published their first works there.
In their poetry the Leipzig poets extolled student life and love, employing all the metaphors, thematics, and rhetorical figures that petrarchism had to offer. Both musicians combined Italian and German song forms in their secular output. Demantius, who studied in Wittenberg and spent much of his time in Leipzig, 30 Chapter Two published various collections of part-songs and madrigals between and He wrote most of the texts himself. These song collections were very popular and were all reprinted several times during the seventeenth century.
Hammerschmidt transferred to his sacred music the descriptive power and concertato techniques of the madrigal. The collections of Demantius and Hammerschmidt have already been mentioned. All his works were reprinted several times. They were either bought from Italy or from other cities in Germany, or written by the court musicians and poets. Schirmer studied in Leipzig and Wittenberg. As well as occasional verse, he wrote many petrarchan love odes and sonnets for the Dresden court. Dedekind was not only a poet, but also bass player and concertmaster in the Dresden court chapel.
The music to which the poems were set combined the single-voice continuo song with the word-painting resources of the Italian canzonetta and madrigal. Nuremberg The city of Nuremberg has already been cited as an important center for the publication and printing of Italian and Italianate poetry and music. Many poets and musicians in this south-German city were active in promoting these art forms.
The poetry of the so-called Pegnitz Shepherds is sonorous, often even playful, and mostly deals with pastoral themes. Staden ,33 oratorio-plays Seelen-Music, Dilherr and S. Staden; various oratorio-plays by Klaj and S.
Staden and a historic concert arranged by Sigmund Theophil Staden in , in which all the poets and musicians of the city worked together. Hamburg The north-German city of Hamburg enjoyed a flourishing cultural life in the seventeenth century. Organists such as Heinrich Scheidemann and Matthias Weckmann, and composers such as Christoph Bernhard, Johann Schop, and Johann Theile raised both secular and sacred music to a high standard.
These musicians worked regularly with the well-known Hamburg poets Johann Rist and Philipp von Zesen. These songs often combined the contemporary secular love poem with mystical poetic traditions, transforming them into love odes to Jesus. They were set to music by Andreas Hammerschmidt and Johann Schop various song collections and were published many times in his lifetime.
Zesen was also famous for his poetic treatise, Deutscher Helicon and reprints , in which he continued the teachings of Opitz and Buchner. Summarizing, similar tendencies may be observed in the petrarchan output of poets and musicians as in the import and printing of foreign works and the studies of German artists abroad.
Just as petrarchism was a focal point in poetry, so the fashionable madrigal was a favored vehicle of musical performance and composition. These two genres were not only associated in Italy chapter 1 , they both spread through Germany at the same time, and poets and composers often worked on them together. Text-setting and musical rhetoric held an important place in German baroque music theory.
As the madrigal genre was distinguished by a close connection between poetic and musical representation, it furnished an excellent model for the demonstration of the compositional techniques of baroque text-setting. Text and Music in Musica Poetica Music and poetry were regarded as related art forms in German baroque art theory. The common objectives and expressive resources of the two were discussed and highlighted in both poetics and music theory.
There are many references to the setting of poems in seventeenth-century poetics. To simplify such settings, the poet should tailor the word choice, structure, meter, and rhyme scheme of his poem toward potential musical setting. In his treatise Geistliche Kantaten statt einer Kirchenmusik he emphasized the importance of freedom of poetic form in the libretti of secular and sacred cantatas.
In his treatise Musica Poetica the theorist Andreas Herbst describes at length the resources with which the composer may set his text. First of all a composer should pay good heed to the meaning of the text or sentence, examine it, and observe in which mode he should compose and set the harmony or song: for just as a poet cannot express and make manifest every material in every poetic genre.
The differentiation of the words. The syllabic accent, and how the words should be placed correctly under the notes. First of all the verba and word, according to which the measures should be conceived and positioned, must be considered and their nature and character carefully heeded and observed. In the Leizpig music theorist Johann Gottfried Walther argues that the composer is comparable to a poet when he composes a melody:.
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