Il faut se garder par cette double exclusion de toute confusion entre.
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Dans son essai sur le concept de race humaine Kant oppose la. Althusser, L. Brandt, R. Cassirer, E. Quillet, Paris, Fayard. Crampe-Casnabet, M. Philonenko, A. Raulet, G. Quadrige , pp.
Riedel, M. Schriften zur Geschichtsphilosophie , Stuttgart, Reclam. Rousseau, J. E-mail de contato:. The main of this article is to discuss the idea of moral enhancement in Kant. We will show that moral enhancement is related do idea of acting from duty and as individuals all that we can do is to act morally and enhance ourselves morally, contributing for the moral enhancement of the human species. To achieve the moral enhancement of the human species, however, it is necessary not only to work for our enhancement, but also to work for the happiness of others.
Human destiny ,then, is to morally improve ourselves as individuals, contributing this way to change the character of the species, becoming not only a species capable of morality but de facto moral, achieving the highest good supremum , while hoping for the happiness of the virtuous, i. Cinara Nahra. Afirma Kant explicitamente AA07 :. Este dever se funda sobre a lei moral. Afirma Kant AA 09 :. O soberano bem em Kant, pode ter dois sentidos, significando supremo supremum ou perfeito. O soberano bem pode significar tanto supremo supremum quanto completo consummatum.
Aqui, no entanto, esbarramos nos nossos limites. Cohen, A. Formosa, P. Giesinger, J. Francisco Cock Fontanella, Unimep, Piracicaba. Kleingeld, P.
Lebrun, G. Munzel, F. Suprenant, C.
Toth, K. Hong-Kong Baptist University, China.
Given his emphasis on deontological ethics, Kant is rarely regarded as a friend of prudence. What typically goes unnoticed is that in explaining the legitimate indeed, indispensable role of historical faiths in the moral development of the human race, Kant appeals explicitly to their prudential status. The wise person adopts some form of historical faith, because to abandon any and all prudential appeals to a faith-based vehicle for morality would render the goal of living a good life virtually impossible for embodied beings to achieve.
Aceptado: 22 de marzo de ]. Stephen R. Because so much of his ethical writing focuses on constructing rational arguments that appeal to the pure form of this law i. For typical examples of such a caricature, see Beiner , , and Davie , A more recent. Once we recognize that Kant poses this well- known, humorous metaphor in a context where he is admonishing us to be prudent, it takes the form of a riddle. He claims to have employed.
Werner S. Quotations from Religion will be based on my revised translation, as found in Palmquist However, in discussing how to respond to the limits placed by the Critique on our knowledge of the three metaphysical ideas of reason i. As is well known, Kant thinks the proper way out of this impasse given that theoretical reason necessarily fails in its attempt to demonstrate that God exists is to ground our certainty in moral reason.
Consequently, reason can here supply none but pragmatic laws of free conduct that is aimed at attaining the purposes commended to us by the senses, and hence can supply no laws that are pure, i. Prudence cannot play any constitutive role in moral decision-making because, as Kant here reminds us, its laws are never pure and a priori, as genuine moral laws must be. Nevertheless, this passage clarifies that we are allowed to consider prudential reasons, especially when it comes to harmonizing our various efforts to reach the highest good.
Turning to the Critique of Practical Reason , we find that Kant is far more cautious about prudence in moral contexts.
To clarify his theory of prudence, Kant repeatedly compares it with the contrasting theories defended by two ancient Greek philosophical schools, the Epicureans and the Stoics ; cf. In the shorter published Introduction he adds that such rules. To be prudent is to consider how. Among the several recent studies of Kantian prudence, I know of none that. But Taylor, like Nelson before him see note 2 and Flikschuh after him, focuses almost entirely on the political implications of Kantian prudence; though he does make a few passing references to Religion , he never cites the passages where Kant actually mentions prudence.
That the once common caricature of Kant the prude i. Of these three influential Kant-scholars, the one whose work offers the most thorough account of Kantian prudence is Wood ; see especially pp. The proper task of religion is to empower us to overcome this universal propensity to evil by influencing how we motivate ourselves to act.
While empowering human beings to be virtuous is the proper moral goalof all true religion, Kant repeatedly argues that this is not the sum-total of what makes religion.
Kant explicitly rejects the view that our bodies are to be blamed for radical evil; in Religion he clearly and repeatedly insists that evil is a defect of the will. With this in mind, he distinguishes between what is essentially religious and therefore universally true, by virtue of its grounding in moral reason and the complement of some historical religious tradition that must inevitable accompany it though the latter by its very nature is contingent and ever-changing. Interpreters of Religion have typically assumed. And for an interpretation. The nuanced, essentially perspectival character of my position on Kantian religion is ignored by McGaughey , who constructs a straw man by imputing an absurd set of interpretive positions to me in support of his allegation that I have misrepresented Kant.
Fortunately, the straw man that McGaughey sets up bears virtually no resemblance to the interpretation of Kantian religion that I actually defend in Palmquist or anywhere else. However, if we. What I shall demonstrate in the. He also alludes to the notion on numerous other occasions by employing a variety of metaphors that vividly portray the relationship between the moral core of religion and its prudent means of application.
A growing ear of corn needs the husk in order to mature into an edible vegetable, even though we typically throw away the husk as if it were useless, once the kernels are. For example, in the Preface to his book, Conflict of the Faculties , p. In fact, it is only natural religion that I appraise. Kant clearly does point out many examples of how Christian doctrines, symbols, and rituals may be interpreted as non-moral, and hence as lacking in prudence; his claim in this Conflict passage is that he did not thereby intend to be assessing their historical truth, as legitimate features of the tradition for appraising that is the job of the biblical theologian, not of the philosopher.
Rather, he was merely assessing their prudential value , as vehicles for moral faith. McGaughey completely ignores this crucial nuance in my reading of Kant, assuming that I take Kant to be referring always and only to historical religion per se , rather than to historical faith as empowered by moral religion see notes 1, 7, and Here prudence is presented ambivalently, as a good tool that is easily used in the service of evil: all too often a religious person experiences great psychological pain during repentance, not out of a sincere conviction that a change of lifestyle is required, but only as a show, prompted by a secret disappointment at having been foolish enough to have been caught in the act of some wrongdoing.
But such disingenuousness and the accompanying guilt is not caused by our need to be prudent; rather, prudence arises as a response to the threefold evil frailty, disingenuousness, and perversity that is presented to us by the human situation. Without portraying it as.
If we were not already, as a part of our first nature, prudential creatures [cf. But prudence…is not a brutish capacity. It is rather a central part of any education that aims at moral maturity.
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A quick reading of this second reference to prudence might give the impression that Kant is depicting prudence as contributing to radical evil. But on closer inspection, this is not what he says. Rather, his argument assumes that radical evil makes us untrustworthy in our interpersonal relationships; an implied premise is that if we were perfectly good i. Indeed, Kant elsewhere defends this maxim in detail, warning friends not to share personal details about themselves that could be used against them, should the friendship someday cease Kant , Kant begins the Second Piece with some reflections on where the ancient Greek Stoics went wrong, and his next reference to prudence appears in this context :.
Rather, one must only tame them, so that they do not themselves wear one another out but instead can be brought to consonance in a whole called happiness. The reason…that accomplishes this is called prudence. Far from disparaging the body, Kant shows himself here to be deeply aware of the significance of human embodiment.
Clearly, Kant is here implying that the Epicurean is no better off than the Stoic: the former lets the inclinations run wild; the latter tries to eradicate them. The wise person i. Here again, therefore, Kant is not downplaying the role of prudential considerations in religion, as traditional interpreters such as McGaughey assume, but is raising it to the level of a factor that determines whether or not a given question is even worth asking. And if called, is such a state guaranteed to be permanent?
For a discussion of this and the other two difficulties, see Palmquist In his misconstrual of my interpretation of Kantian religion see notes 1 and 7, above , McGaughey portrays the argument of Palmquist as if I read Religion as a defense of Christianity as such , and as promoting a form of the doctrine of divine grace that is exclusively and necessarily Christian. What I actually read Kant as arguing, by contrast, is that pure moral religion leaves a space for divine grace, telling us nothing about whether or not such grace actually occurs, but requiring any historical faith that affirms a doctrine of grace whether it be Christian or otherwise to interpret it in a particular way i.
Note, however, that he is also implicitly assuming that childlike faith has a proper role to play in the historical development of the human race, just as it does for human individuals. A few pages later , referring to the Ten Commandments, Kant points out that in the Jewish tradition,.
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