After further wrangling, they managed to find and recruit a qualified teacher with the necessary teaching permit and in opened a "proper" school, centrally located in Hamburg, which at the outset welcomed sixty pupils. Charlotte Paulsen now devoted her life unstintingly to her association for the care of the poor and sick, while campaigning with increasing urgency for religious and political freedom, and advocating women's emancipation.
After her husband died her financial resources became exhausted. For some time she lived with the children in the care centre, before moving into a little apartment of her own in Hamburg-Mundsburg. Dressed in simple clothes, she became a familiar sight on the city streets, helping the poor and others in need. Gertrude church yard. Charlotte Paulsen's ambition that pre-school children and school-age children should be educated in a single establishment was realised only after her death: the institution opened on 3 November , bearing the name "Paulsenstift" as a tribute to Charlotte Paulsen.
It was subsequently destroyed by bombing in and then reconfigured and relaunched in as the Charlotte-Paulsen-Gymnasium secondary school. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. She was born in For the Christian association [which Sieveking ran] this made her unacceptable as an employee. Retrieved 15 August Rita Bake. Charlotte Paulsen, geb.
Thornton 4. Garten der Frauen e. Zeitung Bund der Ehemaligen des Charlotte-Paulsen-Gymnasiums. Jahrhundert bis zu seiner Aufhebung ". Retrieved 19 August November in Recklinghausen]. Waxmann Verlag. Charlotte-Paulsen-Gymnasium, Hamburg-Wandsbek. Retrieved 21 August Categories : People from Hamburg German women's rights activists German women educators births deaths.
We expect an aptitude-treatment interaction in the sense that children with weak initial phonological awareness skills will benefit more from the two consecutive trainings than children with normally developed phonological awareness skills because of a higher developmental potential in the former group. The key question is whether a compensatory effect can be observed in children with weak initial phonological awareness skills, which is defined as reaching post-test achievement levels comparable to children with normally developed phonological awareness skills in the control group.
To be precise, only an effective remediation that helps children with weak initial skills to catch up with children with normal initial skills without training is considered to be compensatory. The present study employed a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design with four measurement points over a time period of 2 years August to July Within these 2 years, the participating children were tested at the beginning as well as the end of their penultimate and ultimate year of preschool.
At each of the four measurement points t 1 —t 4 , we tested a range of cognitive abilities as well as language and musical competencies. The sample was subdivided into two treatment groups and one control group. The second group participated only in the training of phonological skills between t 3 and t 4 TG phon. A third group served as the control group CG which only attended the regular preschool program and did not receive any special training.
Between t 1 and t 2 the TG phon was also considered to be a control group as these children did not receive any treatment before t 3. Some of the participating preschools chose the assignment to one of the treatment groups themselves or were assigned to one of the condition for organizational reasons. Hence, the study did not realize a randomized design. This strategy was necessary to ensure the compliance of the preschool staff with regard to the extensive training and testing procedures.
Although in most facilities, more than one group participated in the study, each preschool was assigned to only one condition to avoid treatment diffusion. Overall, 34 preschools 1 were recruited for the study in small, medium, and large cities in Germany.
Not included were preschools that reported to conduct other phonological or musical training programs besides the ones evaluated in the present study. Further, children with learning disabilities or speech impairments including hearing impairment as indicated by the preschool teachers did not take part in the study. Thus, the sample of the study is not representative.
Some cases were excluded from the following analyses because of problems occurring during the training phases e. To avoid loss of statistical power and biased estimates, missing data were substituted using a single imputation procedure in SPSS We used a background model with language skills, cognitive abilities, and socioeconomic status as predictors to generate a complete dataset accounting for the training conditions and the longitudinal structure of the data.
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Characteristics ratios, means, and standard deviations of the overall sample as well as the three subsamples at t 1. Between t 1 and t 2 the CG and the TG phon formed a combined control group; raw scores are displayed for nonverbal cognitive abilities, working memory, and socioeconomic status. To identify children with weak phonological skills at t 1 for detailed analyses exploring the effectiveness of the training programs for this group, we chose the 25th percentile of a combined measure of phonological awareness broad and narrow; see measures section for details on the instruments as the selection criterion.
As there is no norm-based information on when a child is considered to have weak phonological awareness skills at the age of about 4.
All children who performed above the 25th percentile were considered having normally to highly developed in the following: normal phonological awareness skills. Phonological awareness was measured with a variety of subtests of phonological awareness in the broader and in the narrower sense. To identify children with weak phonological awareness skills at t 1 see above , scores in both of these domains were added up to a composite score.
Each subtest contains 10 items, which means that a maximum of 20 points could be reached in this domain. Each of the three subtests has 8 items, which means that a maximum of 24 points could be reached in this domain. At t 1 and t 2 phonological awareness narrow was measured with two subtests.
Second, the subtest Recognizing the initial sound from the test Aufgaben zur Erhebung der Phonologischen Bewusstheit im engeren Sinn Exercises to assess phonological awareness in the narrower sense ; modified according to Marx and Weber, , which has 8 items. In total, a maximum of 18 points could be reached in this domain. At t 3 and t 4 phonological awareness narrow was measured with four subtests from the WVT Endlich et al.
Each of these four subtests contains 8 items, which means a maximum of 32 points could be reached in this domain. The highest possible score in this subtest is 34 points. The highest possible value Corsi-Span equals 9. Both subtests—one tapping the domain Melody and the other one tapping the domain Rhythm —were used.
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In total, a maximum of 20 points could be reached in this domain as each subtest includes 10 items. In total a maximum of 57 points could be reached in this domain.
In these two subtests, a maximum of 36 and 10 points could be reached, respectively. ISEI values can range from 16 e. The training program is based on a German curriculum for early music education by Nykrin et al. Exercises in the following eight domains were selected from this curriculum: meter, rhythm, pitch, basic music notation competencies, musical intervals and melody progression, dancing, collective singing, listening and playing of music, and joint drumming.
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Individual training sessions with a duration of about 20 min were conducted three times a week over a time period of 16 weeks. The training sessions were carried out in group settings with a maximum of five children per group.
go to link Every session started and ended with a ritual e. Additionally, every session included two active exercises, such as learning a new song, as well as two passive exercises, such as listening or dancing exercises. During the entire training period a stuffed animal called Musikater Music Cat served as a role model who led through the program by playfully announcing and explaining the exercises. As this training program is described in detail elsewhere e. The training program was conducted according to the guidelines of the manual, which recommended daily training sessions lasting about 10—15 min, to be held over a time period of 20 weeks.
The training took place in group settings with an average of eight children and was conducted by the regular preschool teachers. A year earlier in the beginning of , these teachers were trained thoroughly by one of the authors of the training program. Additionally, the teachers practiced the implementation of the program by training another cohort of preschoolers during the previous year An additional booster session for the teachers took place right at the beginning of the training period i.
As the groups did not differ significantly on the control and background measures, none of them were included as covariates in the subsequent comparisons. The analyses were performed separately for the two dependent variables phonological awareness broad and narrow.
Scores on phonological awareness broad in percentage of correct answers t 1 —t 2. Scores on phonological awareness narrow in percentage of correct answers t 1 —t 2. Apparently, the two performance groups differed in the development of their phonological awareness skills over time. The respective means show a more pronounced increase in the phonological awareness broad for the weak group compared to the normal group. Contrasts between the weak and the normal group were performed comparing the training effects to break down this interaction.
The respective means show that the training group stagnated more or less in their performance in phonological awareness, whereas the control group improved slightly over time. In sum, there is no evidence that the training of musical skills improved phonological awareness broad. The same analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of musical training on phonological awareness narrow.
The means indicate that the weak performance group improved their phonological awareness skills narrow more than the normal performance group, on an overall lower level. However, this improvement seems to be independent from the training of musical competencies. In a next step, we analyzed the development of phonological awareness from t 3 to t 4 for the three groups. Approximately half of the former control group also received the phonological training TG phon whereas the rest of the children formed the new control group CG. Again, the analyses were conducted separately for the dependent variables phonological awareness broad and phonological awareness narrow.
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